International Academic Conference on the Changsha Bamboo Documents Dating to Wu of the Three Kingdom:
To Celebrate One Hundred Years of New Discoveries and Research into Bamboo Strips and Silk Manuscripts, 15th - 19th August 2001
The four local TV crews that mobbed the participants on their arrival at Changsha airport left us in no doubt about the significance of early Chinese history as a source of contemporary national pride. As we drove to the conference hotel the roadside advertisements celebrating recent success in the Olympic bid fuelled that image of China's ascent into the international arena as a resilient and enduring force to be reckoned with. As the international expert representing European scholarship, Dr Michael Loewe was therefore given full honours throughout the four days of the conference which was held in the comfortable, air conditioned, environment of a Soviet style hotel in the centre of the city.
The event was a cooperative project administered by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the National Association of History and Changsha Local Government. There were 160 delegates and about one hundred or so papers and reports. The largest number of participants was naturally Chinese, followed by a substantial group of Japanese, many representing two new associations formed especially to study the Zouma lou 走馬樓 manuscripts, and a small delegation of Koreans. Compared to the Beijing meeting in August, 2000 there was a very small turnout from Europe and America with only five participants in all.
Of the 20 or so women participants the most prominent was Zhang Weijue 張偉玦 the mayoress who opened the conference on the Thursday evening claiming Changsha's pedigree as a seat of learning. She noted wryly that the Yuelu shuyuan 岳麓書院, graced at one time by Zhu Xi was an academy of learning dating to the 10th century, several hundred years before the establishment of Oxford and Cambridge. On the following day senior members of the academic communties of China, Hong Kong, England Japan and Taiwan followed with their opening speeches describing the state of the field in their home countries.
Rao Zongyi 饒宗頤 warned that in our excitement about the new discoveries we should not undervalue the study of transmitted texts and the knowledge that we gain from them about the cultural context of the excavated texts. He raised the example of the meaning of Taiyi 太一 in the Guodian 郭店 bamboo manuscripts. Taiyi in the text Taiyi shengshui太一生水 'Taiyi gives birth to Water', he argues, cannot be understood as the name of the star, but only in its connection with more abstract ideas about transformation based on yuanqi 元氣 as we know them from transmitted texts. His general point seemed incontravertible and was underlined by Michael Loewe in his keynote speech later in the conference. But Rao Zongyi's example was unfortunate given Carine Defoort's argument, later in the conference, that the original Heguanzi most probably did not contain the expression "yuan qi" and hence cannot be used as evidence of this concept prior to the Huainanzi in the Former Han.
池田知久 Ikeda Tomohisa and 漥添慶文 Kubo zoe a representative of Oba Osama 大廷修 spoke on behalf of Japanese scholarship where there are two active research centres devoted to the San Guo (Wu) 三國吳 manuscripts, one based at Tokyo University and the other at Kansai Daigaku, Osaka, Chosha Go Kan Kenkyukai 長沙吳簡研究會.The latter society meets monthly and reports on their research into the Zouma lou finds.
The following day Song Shaohua 宋少華, head of the Changsha wenwu kaogu yanjiu suo, started the day with a report on the preservation and collation of the Sanguo (Wu) texts discovered in Changsha city centre in October, 1996. Of the 711, 225 strips and fragmented strips that were found scattered in an ancient well 9 metres below no 50, Zouma lou street 116,909 strips have gone through the initial processing and a total of 60% of the planned restoration work has been completed. Technology for separating the strips avoiding unecessary destruction, and simultaneously differentiating their original order in the text, is continuously developing and the project has also managed to control the spread of mildew.
Within only two years of cooperation with Wenwu publishing house, the project has published the two volume Changsha Sanguo Wujian: Jiahe Limin Tianjia Bie 長沙三國吳簡：嘉禾吏民田家別, containing the excavation report and transcription of 2,141 strips excavated from Well 22 at Zoumalou, complete with photographs of the text. The manuscripts include wooden and bamboo strips and bamboo tablets. From the physical shape of the texts they seem to include standard record books, registers, shu (documents), ci 刺 'letters of introduction' and labels, similar to those excavated from Qin and Han times from all over China. But on closer examination it seems that many of the record books and registers, and most of those written on the wooden tablets, are linked together into a larger document, collectively called bie. The bie published in Jiahe Limin Tianjia Bie is of this kind of composite form. Most documents are around 48/49cms long with the longest being about 56 cms. The normal or regular length of strips used for these purposes is 23 cms or less. This is the unique character of the Zouma lou finds.
The nature and function of bie is the focus of most scholarly attention paid to the Zouma lou texts. A number of papers delivered during the conference were concerned with this topic. Bie seems to be a kind of contractual deed for administering the payment of tax. It has relevance for our understanding of the degree and types of tax exemption, in particular the status of a sector of the populace known as fumin 复(復)民; the nature of taxation payments in grain/cloth; the measuring and division of land between minor officials and the ordinary population; systems of registering the population etc.
Other interesting treatments of the Zouma lou material included Gao Dalun 高大論 and Wang Zijin's 王子今 interpretation of the records of an investigation into the official Xu Di 許迪, who was charged with exchanging surplus salt for grain leaving a portion unaccounted and possibly for private use. There was some discussion of the relative value of salt and grain. For the study of the development of scripts, the Zouma lou texts offer a variety of forms interwoven, including zhuan, li, kai xing and cao. Collectively they reflect a stage in the transition between li and kai. On the other hand much of the script is continuous, and there is apparently a greater degree of stability emerging, if compared to Han beike stone inscriptions.
In his position as Director of the Centre for the Study of Silk, Bamboo and Wooden Manuscripts, Xie Guihua 謝桂華 emphasised how one hundred years of research by of archaeologists, philologists and historians, had made excavated manuscripts into a substantial, modern field of scholarship. He gave a comprehensive overview of the manuscripts excavated at each find according to period and set the scene for the regional reports of research which followed. Xie's own field in Han documents from Juyan in the north-western territories, modern Gansu province, was well represented during the conference with papers given on the nature of commercial activities within the garrison troops, details of changing official appointments as well as critical studies of the transcription of individual graphs and new theories for dating undated strips.
Reports of finds in the northwest continued with Zhang Defang 張德芳 of Gansusheng wenwu kaogusuo who described the 1990-93 excavation of the Han site at Xuanquan 懸泉, in the Hexi corridor, Gansu province. The Xuanquan site is the most perfectly preserved outpost of the Han and Wei period postal services. A total of 35,000 strips were found with 23,000 containing script, as well as 3,000 other items. Currently the work of recording and numbering the documents, examination of the script and the collation and classification of the objects is basically complete and can soon be made public.
17,803 bamboo and wooden strips have been collated (4,000 are illegible and therefore not included) of which 1,900 bear an exact date. The script is fairly clear. The earliest date to the 6th year of Wudi Yuanding 武帝元鼎 (-111) and the latest to the 1st year of Andi Yongchu 安帝永初 (+107). They mainly reflect these two hundred years of history and restore to us imperial decrees, legal ordinances, despatches, technical products, criminal records, record books, tallies, calendrical tables, numerological calculations and medical remedies. This material has given sudden impetus to studies of the postal system and builds on the material found at the Qin Shuihudi 睡虎地 site in Yunmeng which can be used for comparative studies. A paper given by Zhang Defangdetailed the postal districts along with figures for the number of postal staff at postal stations, foot postman, post horses and carriages. Also contained among the texts are records of attempts to ÒprotectÓ, control and organise the northwestern Qiang 羌 peoples, including personnel who were specfically entrusted with this responsiblity.
Other papers of interest to studies of the north-west included a paper by Xing Yitian 邢義田 of Academica Sinica refuting the renewed claim, initially made by Homer Dubbs in 1936, that defeated Roman soldiers of Crassus set up a Chinese version of Alexandria in Li Jian 驪靬, Gansu.
There were a number of papers about the Yinwan 尹灣 documents (c 15-10BC), excavated in modern Jiangsu province, including a critical examination of the purpose of the records of arms apparently kept there by 李成珪 Sung-Kyu Lee of Seoul National University. Professor Lee questioned whether the list was in fact a record of arms kept at Yinwan when there was no store to match the list, or any record of officials to warrant such a store in Donghai jun 東海郡. He speculated that the list related to the glory of the tomb occupant who might have been responsible for such a store in the capital.
Liao Boyuan 廖伯源 of Taibei's Academica Sinica discussed reasons for absence of officials on duty. Bu Xianqun 卜憲群of the History department of CASS discussed procedures and reasons for the promotion of local officials. Michael Loewe noted ways in which the administrative documents from Yinwan clarified major aspects of imperial government, such as the importance of the gongcao 功曹; the types and grades of the subordinate units of the commanderies; the numbers of officials established both there and in the Salt and Iron Agencies; and the different types of official holding appointments in the commanderies. The documents reveal details of the procedure for the annual submission of accounts (shang ji 上計) and the contents of such reports. Figures given in the documents permit an estimate that a total of nearly 100,000 officials served in the provincial units of the empire and 30,000 in the central government in Chang'an.
Peng Hao 彭浩, the curator of Jingzhou Museum, Hubei province gave a short report on the collation of the texts excavated in 1984 from tomb M247 at the Jiangling Zhangjiashan burial site in Hubei. The long awaited photographs of the manuscript were due for publication in October of this year (but have been delayed to December on account of printing difficulties). A transcription of the medical texts has long been available ( Wenwu 1989.7 and 1990.10) and they have been widely studied. Photographs of the Suanshu shu 算數書 are already available in Peng Hao's annotated transcription of this mathematical texts, Zhangjiashan Hanjian (suanshu shu) zhushi 張家山漢簡算數書注釋 (The Han dynasty bamboo slips of the Book of Reckoning). His paper, later in the conference, compared this text to the well-known Han dynasty mathematical text Jiu zhang suan shu 九章算術. (Mathematical Arts in Nine Sections). A transcriptionof the excavated text was first published in Wenwu 2000.9. Its contents consist of 92 mathematical problems divided under 69 distinct headings, typically in the form of a problem statement followed by a solution. The problems mostly relate to practical matters in daily life and official administration. Approximately 60% of the material found in the first seven sections of Jiu zhang suan shu is related to material in the Suan shu shu. Apart from containing much additional material, the Jiu zhang suan shu differs from the Suan shu shu in being a much more orderly and schematised text. The date of composition of the Suan shu shu can be no later than the date of closure of tomb M247 in 186 BC, and some of its material is paralled by texts known to be of Qin date. The text is clearly a collection drawing on more than one source; the identity of its author(s) is unclear. The authorship of the Jiu zhang suan shu is likewise unclear, and the existence of this text is not clearly attested before the late first century AD.
Apart from the mathematical text, it was emphasised that a significant proportion of the Zhangjiashan finds relate to legal material. Zouyan shu 奏讞書 (Book of Legal Cases Submitted t o the Throne) provides details of twenty judicial cases from the late Warring States through to the Western Han period.
An analysis by Li Junming 李均明 revealed a wide variety of rules and regulations restricting the power of the marquises, and aimed at strengthening the power of central government. Some of the rules reflect Qin law, but are generally thought to have been more lenient. Punishments are clearly equated to the crime and might be meted out according, for example, to a framework relating severity to the amount of goods that were stolen. Different classes of people received unequal punishments: distinctions were made about deliberate crime, between individual and group crime, the later being considered more serious; crime of a sexual nature was considered less serious among ordinary people and more serious for officials.
The twenty judicial cases in Zouyan shu also provide important detail on the nature of yi 邑 which were an urban unit related to the xian 縣 'counties', and on six inner town li 里 'wards'. It seems that there was a mixed population residing in the neighbourhoods including both minor officials and agricultural workers who came and went freely through the town gates.
A report from the Hunansheng wenwu kaogu yanjiu suo of the Ci Li 慈利 and the Huxishan 虎溪山 bamboo manuscripts was given by Zhang Chunlong 張春龍 Most of the information was available at the conference last year in Beijing, but this year permission is given to publish details and additional material was handed out about the latter finds. 4,500 strips were excavated in 1994 from tomb 36 at the Cili site. They are now mostly collated and include sections of Guoyu 國語 and the 'Dawu' 大武 chapter of the Yizhou shu 逸周書. Also a large quantity of strips that are probably lost sections of the Sima fa 司馬法, previously known from the entry of 55 juan recorded in the bibliographical treatise of Hanshu. and the 2,000 or so words transmitted in quotations.
Extra details were given about the 1999 excavation of tomb M1 at Huxi Shan in Hunan. The tomb belongs to Wu Yang 吳陽, of the first generation of the family of the marquises of Yuanling 沅陵. From the Shiji and Hanshu accounts we know he was ennobled as Yuanling hou in 187 BC and and died in 162. The several hundred morturary goods were poor in quality and reflected the general poverty of the area around Yuanling during the end of the Qin and beginning of Han dynasties. Above the corpse's head there were was a huangbo 黃簿 register , comprising 200 broken strips and 120 complete strips) detailing the lands, households, staff, goods and chattels, accumulated to the deceased in his lifetime. At his feet was a rishu 日書 with the title yanshi wusheng 閻氏五勝 (Mr. Yan Wusheng?) of 500 or more strips, recording historical dates which can be used to verify the received records. A recipe collection, together with some texts in the Yinyang traditions, was found under the level of the waist of the corpse of the tomb owner. In the report some fragmentary transcriptions were given of twenty of an original 148 meat and fish and seven grain and vegetable recipes. The 300 broken strips and 2,000 words are the remnants of a conjectured 300 whole strips containing numbered recipes. Only twenty recipes survive, but from them we can see that the Han elite valued a varied diet with different methods to cook rice, grain and vegetable, dog, goose, lamb, deer, pig, chicken, swallow, beef and hare. Different parts of the animals were cooked separately with a variety of techniques including steaming, braising, pot-cooking using alcoholic liquor, ginger and various ingredients for flavouring.
Hao Benxing 郝本性 and Zhao Shigang 趙世綱 of the Henan Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, and Susan R. Weld of East Asian Legal Studies at Harvard Law School, reported on the finds of covenant tablets (mengshu 盟書) at Wenxian 溫縣, Henan province. These tablets are dated to 498BC, the same period as the Houma 侯馬 covenant tablets which are dated to 496BC. At Wenxian more than 12,000 covenant tablets, many fragmented, were excavated from 16 pits. The majority of the tablets are of what appears to be slate, cut into gui 圭 shaped tablets, a small number are slips of a jade-like material. The texts are brush written with black ink. Each text is one of a small number of different oaths which all share the same basic structure and use many of the same formulaic phrases seen in the Houma covenants. Each tablet is individualized with the name of the covenantor making this oath of loyalty to his lord. The formulaic phrases include such demands as: "split open your heart and vitals to serve your lord." The particular combination of religion, sacrifice and blood in the covenant texts may give us new insight into the early, more ritualized and less philosophical, conception of zhong 忠, and de 德. While the content of the tablets is very similar, the amount of graphic variation in the texts makes the cache a great resource for the study of the evolution of the script.
Susan Weld provided some wonderful computer images of the tablets to go with the presentation and distributed a report on advances in the project to digitize, publish and, eventually, create a website of the Wenxian tablets. She emphasized the virtue of prompt creation of digital images to avoid problems such as subjective distortion of hand-copied texts and degradation or loss of original objects. With the assistance of a small grant from the Luce Foundation and East Asian Legal Studies at Harvard, Susan and her team produced digital images of 4000 of the most legible tablets. Her team included Carl Andrews of Massachusetts General Hospital, a photographer and computer expert, and Crispin Williams of Dartmouth College, a doctoral student of Sarah Allan and Bernhard Fuehrer, working on the Wenxian texts for his doctoral dissertation at SOAS. A substantial number of these images will be included in the excavation report to be published within the next few years. Once the tablets have been published the Henan Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology will be able to set up a web-based database containing all the 4000 digitized images. The site, designed by Carl, would allow a visitor to sort and arrange the material according to their own research requirements. The project is an impressive demonstration of how quickly and relatively cheaply such source materials can now be made available to scholars all over the world.
It was very encouraging to historians of medicine that a panel was devoted exclusively to medicine. Professor Ma Jixing 馬繼興 of the history department of Zhongyi yanjiu yuan 中醫研究院 Academy of Research into Chinese Medicinechaired the panel. His own paper was a comprehensive survey of manuscript finds recovered in the last century that relate to medicine, with an analysis of salient areas of interest. Evidence scattered through the Shuihudi 睡虎地, Shuanggudui 雙古堆, and the Zhangjiashan Zouyan texts, for example, give new insights into legal aspects of medicine. Wang Shumin 王淑民, Professor Ma's long-term collaborator in the transcription of medical manuscripts from Mawangdui and Dunhuang spoke about the Taichanshu 胎產書, which comprises texts and diagrams related to determining the fate of the child, and burying the placenta in order that it might exert an auspicious influence on the child in its lifetime. Using quotations from the received body of literature Wang Shumin discussed the Western Han text and pieced together some ideas about lineages of thought from Han through to the Sui and Tang periods.
As a result of the enormous number of papers submitted, each day was divided into three or four panels according to period: Warring States, Western and Eastern Han, and Three Kingdoms. While the conference covered a lot of ground, it was frustrating to miss many papers of interest that were scheduled concurrently. What follows is a summary of those presentations I and colleagues attended fleshed out with the help of the booklet of abstracts provided by the organisers. Papers of general interest included 影山輝國 of 實踐 Womens' University's call for a re-appraisal, on the basis of manuscript finds, of Hu Shi's 胡適 argument that taboos on the use of certain characters during the Western Han were not enforced, reconsidering the denial that the appearance of taboo words is useful dating. 滕田胜久 Fujita ?? emphasised how the manuscript finds give a picture of some of the sources on which Sima Qian drew in compiling Shiji. Papers on the Baoshan 包山texts included readings of divination strips, an analysis of different terms and concepts of oath, contradictions in the characteristics of local government in Chu. There was a reconstruction of some of the strips from Xinyang 信陽 and Jiudian 九店 tomb M556; many discussions of problems encountered in reading Chu script with individual treatments of readings and interpretations of names seen on different inscriptions, clarification of the Fuxi Nuwa myth, and the Jianchu 建除 system and the calendar.
There were a number of papers devoted to supplementing and correcting earlier notes on reading the Guodian strips, such as graphic variants of si 肆 in Wuxing 五行, Yucong er 語叢二 and Xing zi mingchu 性自命出; to ascertaining the influence of Zi Si 子思 and other disciples of Confucius on Laozi. Ikeda Tomohisa of Tokyo Daigaku spoke about the connections between Xing zi ming chu and the hexagram Qian 謙. Liu Lexian 劉樂賢 gave some new readings for the term xianxian 銛錟 in Laozi. Other papers considered how the Guodian manuscripts contribute to the debate over the dating of the transmitted Laozi compilation of Wang Bi; reasons why Taiyi shengshui was left out of later editions of Laozi; or what they reflect about the affiliations of the elite and literate of Chu with the North. Readings in the Tang Yu zhi dao 唐虞之道 variously concentrated on ethical concepts, including a paper by the Korean scholar Li Chenglu, which highlighted the stress on ai 愛 and the similarity in use to ideas current in Mohism as represented in the Jian'ai 兼愛 chapter.
Papers examining the provenance of terminology in the Mawangdui manuscripts, displayed a recurrent interest in ideas about 'natural law'. Cao Feng 曹峰 of Daigaku in, Tokyo University emphasised the importance of ming 名 'names' and their relationship to fa 法 in the Jingfa 經法, pointing out that an indiscriminate concentration on the links between dao 道and fa in the text had distorted previous analysis. Cui Yongdong 崔永東 from Qinghua discussed moral and legal concepts and evidence of their practical application according to Mawangdui Yijing 易經; Guo Lihua's 郭梨華 paper explored the combination of sun 損 and yi 益 occuring in the Mawangdui text Yao 要 as they relate to Confucian priorities in Yijing.
Yijing studies continued with 近藤浩之 Kondo Hiroyuki of Daigaku in Hokkaoido University who compared the parallel use of different terminology for divination between three texts, the Qin Wangjiatai 王家台 Guizang 歸臧, the Fuyang 阜陽 Zhouyi 周易 and the Zuozhuan. Chen Songchang 陳松長 of Hunan Museum reported on the sections of the Mawangdui shifa 式法 that have not yet been published and commented on their relation to the text Yinyang wuxing.
One of the most interesting and enjoyable aspects of the conference was listening to gossip about new excavations. Gao Dalun had much to say about the two tombs in the process of excavation inside Chengdu city, not far fromthe 文殊院 Wenshu yuan. One of the tombs dates to late Shang or early Zhou and contains similar material to that found at Sanxing dui 三星堆. Another Warring States tomb 18 metres long has already been excavated and promises rich finds. There was more talk of the Warring States bamboo manuscripts bought from Hongkong by Shanghai museum. These reportedly contain lost elements of the Shijing (six odes, new titles etc) as well as records of the statements of either Confucius or one of his disciples, Buzi 卜子, determining the latter question being a matter of heated debate. The only paper on the Shanghai finds was a treatment of differences between the Shanghai and Guodian editions of the Xing zi mingchu.
On sale at the conference there were a number of new publications about excavated manuscripts worthy of note, including the launch of Zhongguo jiandu jicheng 中國簡牘集成 (Lanzhou: Lanzhoushi xinhua shudian, 2001). This is a magnificent series containing a comprehensive series of photographs of the silk, bamboo and wooden manuscripts excavated throughout the last century. Hu Pingsheng's 胡平生 amended transcript of the yue ling 月令 'ordinances of the month' (dating to the fifth year of the yuanshi period of Pingdi 平帝, 5AD) written on a mud wall excavated in Dunhuang, Xuanling in Gansu, Dunhuang Xuanquan yueling zhaotiao 敦煌懸泉月令詔條. The volume includes a number of photographs which illustrate different stages in the benighted process of transcription. The mud wall was apparently smashed in the process of excavation and the ruined text and individual characters were summarily filled in by the team involved in the excavation. Thus the earlier transcription in Wenwu 200.5 contains significant errors which now stand corrected. Also available at the conference was Longgang Qin jian 龍岡秦簡 the newly published photographs and transcriptions of the manuscripts found in tomb 6 of the nine tombs excavated at Yunmeng 雲夢. These finds were described in Jianghan kaogu 1990.3 and Kaogu xue jikan 1994.8 and Yunmeng Longang Qinjian 雲夢龍岡秦簡 (Kexue: 1997) and contain records of Qin law. Two papers by Wei Qipeng 魏啟鵬 of Sichuan University and Yu Zhenbo 于振波 of the Yuelu Academy, Hunan University discussed the importance of the monthly imperial decrees in the Western Han. Wei's argument was supported by readings of explanatory notes made to the yueling in AD 5.
The organisation of the conference only allowed for a few forays out into Changsha city and environs. The first was a pleasant trip to the Hunan Museum and a preview of the new exhibition centre where there was a special exhibtion of selections of previously unseen strips from Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi, including some from Zouma lou and Zhangjiashan. The second was a trip to the Yuelu academy, which was established by Zhu Dong, magistrate of Tanzhou Prefecture in 976. There was a large turnout of keen university student s and local press who listened critically and asked many questions. Keynote speeches were delivered from the Song lecture hall, once the platform for Zhu Xi's lectures, and crowned appropriately with Kang Xi's inscription ' Xue Da Xing Tian' 學達性天 'they that learn will reach nature and heaven'. In the sweltering mid-summer heat we listened Li Xueqin who stressed the importance of international scholarship and cross-disciplinary studies to the project to determine accurately the chronology of the early dynasties. With the coincidence of data between the oracle bones, bronze inscriptions and the sequences recorded in Shiji, he believes it is possible to verify the dates working back from 841BC. In particular he impressed upon us the importance of scientific verification of astronomical data in the received histories. He also spoke about how evidence from Xingzi ming chu and yue ji 藥記 chapter of the Liji show how some concepts traditionally associated neo-Confucianism such as tianli 天理 and renyu 人欲 (仁?) may have already existed in the Warring States period.
Michael Loewe gave a spirited lecture on the importance of textual criticism. He expounded upon how the newly found manuscripts lead towards solution of many of the major scholarly problems in reading transmitted texts - which of several received copies is to be preferred, the earliest or most authentic, what is the intellectual background of our existing texts.
The conference had been punctuated by lavish banquets with regular drinking games. After the Yuelu shuyuan lectures we tucked into some local Hunan fare, distinguished by a little extra chilli in the zhouzi 肘子 'casseroled knuckle of pork' and the popular, smoky flavours of Maojia cai 毛家菜. It was often hard work keeping up with the schedule of papers, but there were so many displays of generosity both in spirit and, more concretely, in complementary publications that the whole event was one that I will remember with considerable pleasure. Finally, I must say that this report is a group effort and I am grateful for the help of Michael Loewe, Carine Defoort, Wang Shumin, Liu Lexian and Susan Weld for reports about the panels I did not attend, as well as the comments of Christopher Cullen and Paul Thompson. I am, however, responsible for any mistakes in this final report.